A project of the
Institute for Policy Studies

Poverty More than a Matter of Black and White

Far too many Americans still see poverty and poor people through a racial prism that distorts demographic realities — and undermines efforts to narrow income inequality.

By Robert Ross

In mid-September the Census Bureau released its latest report on Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States, current through 2011. Poverty as officially measured, the Census researchers found, went largely unchanged from the year before, though household income did fall.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau

The new data also show, as they’ve shown since these statistics first became available in the 1960s, that black people in the United States have a much higher risk of living in poverty than white people. But poverty, a deeper look at the data shows, does not simply boil down to a matter of black and white.

Census Bureau researchers base their poverty figures on a market-basket approach, with a formula derived originally from the cost of an emergency food budget and then corrected for family size, age, and inflation. In 2011, under this formula, families of four rated as poor if their income fell below $23,000.
Many people — including many college students who enroll in courses about poverty and social policy — assume that black means poor. Why this assumption? Massive racial inequality certainly plays a major role.

To take but two examples: Black household income stood at only 55 percent of white household income in 2011, an even smaller share than 1999’s 63 percent. Black unemployment in August 2012  ran twice white unemployment, 14.1 to 7.2  percent.

Black people currently make up about 13.8 percent of the U.S. population, and about 27 percent of these Americans fall below the poverty line. The population overall rates as about 15 percent poor. So black people in the United States face nearly twice the risk of living in poverty as average Americans.

This elevated risk reflects past and current institutional practices that put blacks and other minorities at a disadvantage. But it’s also true that almost three-quarters of black incomes do not fall below the poverty line. Collapsing poor and black as if all poor were black and all blacks poor turns the “poverty” problem into a “race” problem.

The white poverty rate does run much lower than the black rate, just under 10  percent, one-third of the black rate. But the white poor outnumber the black poor considerably, 19 to 7.8 million. White people make up 42 percent of America’s poor, black people about 28 percent.

The basic numbers don’t change when we look at people living in extreme poverty, in households making less than 50  percent of the meager poverty line. Of the 20 million people who live at this alarming level of want and deprivation, about 42 percent are white, 27  percent black.

These data have political implications that racial stereotyping usually shroud from public view.  Many white people who don’t live anywhere near poverty, even many who consider themselves liberal, think blacks compose most of the poor. Large numbers of these white Americans feel no emotional connection to the problems poor people face. They perceive poverty as a problem of some other community, not their own.

If those white Americans who felt this way actually had to confront the demographic reality of poverty, if they came to understand that white people make up the single largest group of the poor, how white America thinks about poverty and policy might start changing.

Well-meaning white Americans have for decades been aware that black people face the risk of poverty than whites. But “poverty,” we all need to understand, is more and different than “race.”

  • UGhhhh

    this information is misleading at best “White people make up 42 percent of America’s poor, black people about 28 percent.” White people make up 78% of the US population. So of course there would be more poor white folk than black folk out of total poor folk. THERE IS A HUGE PROBLEM IN THIS COUNTRY WITH RACE AND POVERTY. ignoring the racial component is naive at best and a symptom of white privilege at worst.

    • Eric McCowan

      Sure there are more blacks that are poor (percentage). There are more blacks that rely on government handouts as a way of ‘earning a living’. The question that needs to be asked is why? Why do more blacks live in poverty. I do not think that it’s because they would rather get a handout instead of working. It could be because of racism and discrimination in the workforce, so much so that black people give up on work. I don’t know. I’m not black so I cannot speak from experience.

      • Destiny

        Most people who receive welfare are white. Blacks do NOT make up a larger percentage if the poor than whites. If you read the article you would have learned that WHITES make up the largest percentage of poor people in this country (25.4% to 43%). This means that the majority of poor people ARE non hispanic whites. Yes it is true that the number of blacks living in poverty is higher than it should be. It should be closer to 14-15% but still that doesn’t t as ke away that fact that almost 75% of the poor in this country is NOT black and almost half of our nation’s poor are non Hispanic whites so why do blacks and Hispanics get blamed for the bulk if welfare abuse and poverty when whites are the biggest offenders?

  • don bruce

    It would be a most interesting follow up to this article to analyze the percentage of scholarship monies going to african american and latino.(both at the federal and state level and the NGO communities..Most universities do not honor the notion of equality of opportunity and also perceive that the vast majority of the problem is a racial one…we need to make the american dream available to all ….even those who are caucasian.

    • Destiny

      Many of these scholarship are awarded to blacks and latinos through PRIVATE organizations and corporations who are legally entitled to award them to whoever they please. Also, the number of scholarships awarded to minorities are still not large enough in number to support the millions of minority college students out there. Most still have to rely on federal student aid just like the white students

      • JTMB Videos

        so ALL minority students should have grants and scholarships for school, yet white students should be getting student loans?

    • Kirk McClain

      Here is your follow up. This paper presents data concerning the distribution of grants and scholarships by race. It debunks the race myth, which claims that minority students receive more than their fair share of scholarships. The reality is that minority students are less likely to win private scholarships or receive merit-based institutional grants than Caucasian students. Among undergraduate students enrolled full-time/full-year in Bachelor’s degree programs at four-year colleges and universities, minority students represent about a third of applicants but slightly more than a quarter of private scholarship recipients. Caucasian students receive more than three-quarters (76%) of all institutional merit-based scholarship and grant funding, even though they represent less than two-thirds (62%) of the student population. Caucasian students are 40% more likely to win private scholarships than minority students.

      • JTMB Videos

        yet white people make up to 78% of the population…..

        • Kirk McClain

          Yep, 78%, so this 78% is getting most of the grants, and scholarships when as a collective group, they are already privileged and advantaged by a system made for them and by them which gives them a leg up on all other racial classes. THE TERM FOR IT IS CALLED WHITE PRIVILEDGE. And the reason why you don’t see it, or believe it is because it’s too damn pervasive to notice if you are white. Duh! Please read replies from Olivia and Richard James Burgess III. You might learn something, but I doubt it because my guess is you are a Trump voter, and that says it all.

  • Ozzy

    So if the ‘Americans’ knew there are so many poor White people maybe the “Americans” would care more about the Brown poor people. Why don’t you just say we White poor don’t count because there are enough Whites who are not poor. Come to think of it, that is just what you said.

  • chuck

    misleading information. you have to show % of blacks in poverty vs per of white

    in poverty TAKEN independantly. the % of the white population in poverty is

    far less than black. far less. this idiot knows this.

    • Jay Jay

      people currently make up about 13.8 percent of the U.S. population, and
      about 27 percent of these Americans fall below the poverty line. – See
      more at:

      • destiny

        Which Still doesn’t take away the fact that 42 percent of our nation’s poor are non Hispanic whites. The stats are not misleading. The point of the article is that you have all these ignorant white people blaming blacks for milking all the welfare dollars and not pulling their weight when the majority of government assistance is consumed by whites. Sure the number of blacks should be lower but blacks do not make up the majority of the poor and most blacjs do not live below the poverty line

        • Max X kinght

          but i can say all those ignorant black say they are poor because of white people but there more poor white than White

    • Jay Jay

      white poverty rate does run much lower than the black rate, just under
      10 percent, one-third of the black rate. But the white poor outnumber
      the black poor considerably, 19 to 7.8 million. White people make up 42
      percent of America’s poor, black people about 28 percent. – See more at:

      • ADP

        yes, but that would be like saying in China there are more Chinese people who live in poverty than that of caucasian people. The Chinese make up 90% of the 6 billion population so, of course the Chinese people are going make up more numbers. But the % of Chinese poor is 5.5% out of say 5 billion people whereas the % of caucasian people is 24% of it’s 1 billion people. I’m probably just wasting my time cuz people cannot understand these simple numbers. LOL

  • vetri

    Poverty has no color.

    If you want use color for poor population, ignore population of any color which is not poverty.
    In this case, we should always talk like “White population in poverty is higher than black population” rather than individual percent among different colors.

    Latter perspective is racist

  • CJ

    This reporter has all the information and facts, yet is incapable of using reason and is instead accessing centuries of prejudice and discriminatory beliefs that have altered the functioning his DNA, making it impossible to access his reasoning abilities, when it comes to minorities.

    • Destiny

      No you’re incapable of understanding that most people are white not black

  • Rod

    I think most of you didn’t fully read the article or quickly inferred the wrong thing. (Judging from your attacks on the author) The author is basically saying that politically blacks are being associated with poverty (which is misleading and untrue)…so when a policy is being created to address issues related to the poor (to help improve their quality of life) adversarial politicians will (and have effectively) used the “poor black” as a bogeyman to convince poor whites that the proposed policy in question (that could benefit them) will only help poor blacks…like Reagan’s “welfare queen” or willie Horton exaggerated narrative to engender support for his (extreme conservative) narrative or agenda…the point is while blacks have a severely disproportionate poverty rate it is ignorant to believe policies designed to help the poor will NOT have a positive impact on white communities given the sheer volume of whites in poverty

    • Tricia

      Thank you for clarifying this for me. I was also confused about what the author was saying. I thought he was trying to assert that there is a greater percentage of poor white than poor black people just because the number of whites is greater. But your comment cleared it up for me.

    • Profound One

      Great post bro! Bravo …

    • Bryan Leist

      blacks are associated with poverty. This is accurate and correct. Theres more whites in poverty by the numbers, but blacks live in a culture of poverty which burdens them much stronger. They live in impoverished neighborhoods together in ghettos while whites are impoverished spread around.

      • It’s almost over


  • Richard James Burgess III

    Some of you are taking this way out of context. While welfare may be a contributing factor, that in itself is in no way, shape, or form the issue being addressed here. The most significant problem is how poverty, otherwise known as “less than significant income”, is perceived. Even for those on welfare, they do not bring in enough to even meet the most basic of needs. What needs to be corrected is the sheer separation between social classes as a whole regardless of color, race, or even religion. Far too many upper class live on “handouts”, and theirs are substantially larger than even the working class. Welfare supports nothing, the working class supports everything, and the “entitled” class, aka, the 1% takes advantage of those that can barely support themselves. To make matters worse, the highest percentage of the world’s resources, let alone this country’s, is controlled by the top 1% of the collective 1% wealthiest people alive today, and they do next to nothing to earn any of it. All that is necessary of them is to sit back and fuel the fire, sowing the discord between everybody not in that group. If the rest of us 99% would come together and put forth our energy wasted bickering over their nonsense between us, we could use their own influence against them and eradicate the broken system completely. All we really gotta do is NOT support anything we disagree with. For instance the gas industry. Unfortunately, we all gotta get to work so we won’t stop giving our money away, right? The 1% are counting on us to continue to go to work doing menial tasks that they are too entitled to be caught dead even speaking of, but almost half of our pitiful wages go to them while they do nothing to earn or deserve it. If we could support ourselves and each other and stop contributing to their system by establishing our own, essentially cutting them off. Poverty would cease to exist. Money holds far too much power. If we were so inclined, we could learn to live without it. The planet was designed to support us, already offering everything we might need, we must simply decide to give up some things we want for a while. However, even natural, clean energy is available. With enough support for causes such as these. We could all be self-sufficient and money would be finally be no more than what it really is. Something to wipe your ass with.

  • ghastly_74

    I guess the name of the site says it all. I was searching for a VALID site in which to do a paper and this is obviously not it. This author is delusional at best. Walk out your door.

    • Kirk McClain

      State your case ghastly74. The statistics cited here are from the Census Bureau – an a-political government organization. You should just say the truth – you were looking for a site that VALIDATED your preconceived notions of Race, poverty and Privilege. Try Fox news, the Heritage Foundation or the American Enterprise Institute. They’re all “Fair and Balanced.”

      • ADP

        but that would be like saying in China there are more Chinese people who live in poverty than that of caucasian people. The Chinese make up 90% of the 6 billion population so, of course the Chinese people are going make up more numbers. But the % of Chinese poor is 5.5% out of say 5 billion people whereas the % of caucasian people is 24% of it’s 1 billion people. I’m probably just wasting my time cuz people cannot understand these simple numbers. LOL

        • Kirk McClain

          ADP, this whole discussion is about perception, and how people respond to what they perceive. In the US, it has been for decades advertised and purported that blacks are poor, welfare-bound, and non-producing, non-working, lazy people. That’s a lie, yet because of the media, that is exactly what most white people think. Whites make up 233 million people in the US, Blacks make up 34 million. Like your China example, there are more whites so of course they will have a higher percentage of US poor (even within their own demographic) -duh! The question is why is it that every time the media reports on poverty, a minority or black face is what they show when they know it’s inaccurate? That is textbook racism and it is insidious and runs so deep in this country that most whites don’t even recognize it.

          • ADP

            I totally agree with you sir! I’m currently writing my final paper in one of my English courses on poverty in the US. The correlations of high poverty in population pockets dense with minorities is disgusting. And I mean disgusting as why isn’t more help being provided to these areas, especially the children!? I’m worried also and wonder where are all the leaders? Where are the men like Malcolm X, MLK Jr., JFK? Where are the leaders to stand up against this gross injustice? I’ve only been studying it a few days and can see correlations, why aren’t the more educated who knows this system of inequality not coming together and making a stand? That’s what I’m worried about. And I grew up as the only white kid in a predominantly African American neighborhood where I put cockroaches in my hot wheels and pushed them down the stairs for fun. So, I know what it means to be poor. It’s very concerning.

          • Kirk McClain

            ADP, can’t say I ever raced cock-roaches in Hot-wheels (that’s hilarious btw!), but I did grow up poor in one of the worst ghettos in Chicago. However, to your question of the lack of black leadership – black leadership is all around us, bro. You just have to look in the right places. I was recently told by a black leader that blacks have to first reclaim their heritage before they can do anything to change their situation in the US. He meant that blacks need to find their culture (African) and educate themselves on who the hell they were BEFORE they encountered whites. Capitalism, “democracy” and the economic structure in the US has done a number on blacks because they were marginalized by laws and regulations that did not allow them to obtain wealth in our various communities. believe it or not, cities, counties and states employ urban planning methods that allow them to grow stable communities and support higher property taxes so that when the city invests money in a community, it helps the community support the city and state through a higher tax base. Black communities do not have the ability to do that because of high unemployment and low incomes in that community. It would be a “bad investment” for the city. We have black leaders in Congress, black judges, black PhD’s, even a black President!, and we still can’t find a way to thrive as a community because outright de jure racism has been replaced by de facto racism and then carefully inserted into laws and legislation from Congressional Bills all the way to your local municipal court. That’s why black leaders talk so much about “outcomes” of various laws; does the legislation produce a racist or discriminatory outcome even though it is not an obviously racist law on it’s face? It’s much easier to see racism when it’s wearing a KKK uniform than it is when it’s wearing a $2,000 dollar Brooks Brothers suit and is a member of Congress!

  • disqus_zLY0jsDmax

    Oh, gosh. We are still way behind when we have to try to “convince” white people to care about poverty by pointing out most of them are white. How about trying to convince them that we are all one. To much to ask, I guess.

  • Kim Thompson

    I totally get the point of this article, but highly doubt rich white republicans will give more of a rat’s a$$ about poor people just because you remind them that most poor people in the USA are white. The assumption the author has made is that all rich white people are racist, and will suddenly care more about poor people if they know they are white. IMO racism plays an insignificant role in whether or not people support policies that harm the poor and reward the rich. Last I checked, there was no shortage of black conservative voters or politicians.

  • Philip Devine

    The plurality of poor people in America are white. People do not see this fact. This has four disturbing implications:
    1, Poverty is not in general the result of racial discrimination, or even discrimination against the poor person’s ancestors.
    2. Those concerned for the poor have failed to sell the idea that the poor are people like us, only unfortunate or the victims of (not necessarily racial) injustice.
    3. The white poor have been left off the official list of oppressed minorities. For far too many people, the ‘oppressed’ means transsexuals rather than coal miners. And people who otherwise scrupulously refrain from derogatory expressions for groups of people still speak of ‘rednecks’ and ‘white trash.’
    4. Anti-racism has become toxic. It reinforces rather than undermines our tendency to see each other primarily in racial terms, even when wealth vs. poverty is the real issue.

  • Nomad

    So what does being poor have to do with white people? Get off your ass and work. I have seen assholes on food stamps with Iphones on their hips. It is called priorities. Many of these people I have seen either get pregnant young or get into drugs or have something happen. I am so sick of it being the responsibility of other people when someone is in poverty.

  • Olivia

    This isn’t rocket scientist information. I’m not sure how White people haven’t figured this out, but they’ve been mislead by wealthy Whites and politicians who want them to think that Black people are the reason for all of their ills. Let me keep this simple, There are approximately 233 MILLION White people in America, while there are only approximately 34 MILLION Black people. That means there are more than 200 MILLION White people than Black people in America. Common sense would dictate that obviously there are more POOR White people in American than there are poor Black people. Unfortunately, the Hitler like news propaganda regarding the poverty status of Black people have White people looking at us as if we’re their problem, when in fact we’re not.

    I’ve never lived in a ghetto, and I’ve never been poor. None of the Black people I know live in ghettos, or are people who have been on the welfare roles for decades. The majority of the Black people I know have college educations, own their own homes, also sent their children to college and are doing well in America. Why? Because they work hard, they’re intelligent and honest. I know thousands of Black people, and even more who I don’t know personally, but know of through friends and associates. We’re fine, but that doesn’t mean there aren’t millions of people who need assistance, Black, White or Hispanic. We can and need to do better as a nation.

    If we could learn how to eradicate racism, that would be the beginning of a new and better era.

  • K. Bekei

    Race and poverty, still?!? We all live in a country that every other person wants to come to, why? Opportunities. Many immigrants struggle, work two jobs, just to give their children an education so they will have a better life. Americans, be they white, black, Hispanic, Asian whatever have these same opportunities, plus the advantage of already speaking the language and understanding the culture. Yet, many will still fail, not because of less opportunity, but a mentality ingrained in them that blames others for their lot in life.

    Look at our education system. Why are more girls graduating and going on to university and higher paying careers? Because they have the opportunity to better themselves and they are taking it. In ten to twenty years when women outnumber men in top jobs and education, who will men blame, women? If boys and men don’t want to put forth the effort and work, will they realize they’re to blame, or will they simply blame women instead of stepping up?

    The US offers opportunities to anyone wanting a better life, but all they ask, is that you work for it. So, what’s the problem? Even for those who can’t or won’t, there are safety nets like welfare and other social programs. It’s meant to be a stop gap measure, not a way of life. If you’re poor, then study, apply yourself and get good grades and student loans, it’s what most Americans do. White or black, most Americans can’t afford to pay for a higher education, they will get financial help, and that really is the truth of the matter. Even scholarships don’t give students a free ride, or a guarantee of success without applying themselves and studying. No one said it would be easy, nothing worth having is.

    If immigrants can work and study for a better life, then Americans have no excuse. Education is the only way out of poverty, and this constant “victim” mentality needs to stop. It helps no one, creates no opportunities, opens no doors, because those are up to individuals to pursue and change. This is not about race, this is about a willingness to do whatever it takes to pull yourself out of the situation you’re in, and to stop thinking of yourself as a victim, blaming whites, government or whoever else you feel has done you or some ancestor wrong.

    Finally, stop making babies you don’t want and take personal accountability for your actions. Learn about and use birth control and help control the spreading of STD’s. Stop dressing, looking and acting like a thug, and then wondering why police and society see you that way. Stop with the violence against your own community, and start acting like mature, responsible adults. If you’re a victim, you’re a victim of your own making. So stop it. You live in the greatest country in the world, now act like it.

Read previous post:
The World’s Smallest Shipwreck

Romney went to the trouble of filling out a Form 4684 (Casualties and Thefts) to report losses of $39. One...